Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Criminal Procedure Unit 2 Homework - Article Example The court, be that as it may, balanced earlier understandings of the provisions, preposterous pursuit and seizure, to incorporate insignificant interruption through innovation as a hunt. The court led two delay tests, which required the litigant to show whether he had emotional creative mind. In such manner, such creative mind concerned the encompassing where the inquiry was directed and whether the general public acknowledges such desire as sensible. The court decided that Mr. Katz had a sensible desire for protection inside the pay phone and that cops had no critical condition. Hence, it was basic for them to look for a guarantee before embraced such an activity. The term seizure is utilized to depict any type of impedance to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s possessory enthusiasm for material products. Irrational seizure suggests a condition where the asset proprietor had a sensible expectation of protection in the things seized. An individual or property is supposed to be seized, when law authorizing officials apply power to limit the individual or property. This circumstance happens if the property or individual doesn't practice oneÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunity to leave the circumstance (Amar, 1994). The instance of Terry v. Ohio included Terry and two other men watched by cops in regular clothes. The officials accepted that the men were Ã¢â¬Ëcasing a vocation, a stick-upÃ¢â¬â¢, and hence, they continued to search the three men (Lichtenberg, 2001). The officials recuperated unlawful weapons held by the two men. The court addressed whether the inquiry and seizure of the men added up to a penetrate of the Fourth Amendment. The court concluded that the inquiry performed by the cops was sensible under the Fourth Amendment. The court confirmed that the cops worked on more than a Ã¢â¬ËhunchÃ¢â¬â¢ and that a sensible man would have been enticed to accept that
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Bring Home Essay Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The world we live in today is continually changing, regardless of whether it be innovation or the land. As these progressions happen, society must adjust to them. Numerous things start to change subsequently and society creatures to transform into something totally extraordinary. One of the most disregarded changes that happens is that of the earth and scene. The scene is one of the most significant pieces of our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and greatly affects how we live. It appears that these days, numerous people are exploiting the land and nothing valuing it for everything that it is worth. The facts confirm that not every person is going to take a gander at the earth and scene similarly, anyway that is no reason to slight it. On the other hand, a totally different contention can begin from that, as various people will have various perspectives on what disregarding the land. Numerous positive things have originated from exploiting the land, and furtherm ore, there have been many negative things to come accordingly. Everything relies upon what you look like at it. One thing is without a doubt however, regardless of what the case is, the land and condition we live in has a colossal impact in every one of our regular day to day existences. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Our scene is continually changing, since the Big Bang Theory to introduce day. There are a wide range of components which can a colossal effect on the forming of the land. There are numerous catastrophic events, for example, floods, tropical storms, quakes, typhoons, and even fierce blazes. They can change the essence of the scene and they can change the state of the scene. At that point there is additionally the human factor. Numerous colossal organizations and organizations are continually exploiting, or as Denis Wood alludes to as in Ã¢â¬Å"The Spell of the Land,Ã¢â¬ the assaulting of the land. It is an exceptionally uncommon sight to being driving these days and not see some kind of building being manufactured or a future sight of some sort of business. There is nothing that should be possible when taking a gander at the catastrophic event factor, yet concerning the human factor, there are steps that individuals can do to forestall the Ã¢â¬Å"rapingÃ¢â¬ of th e land. Once more, similar to I addressed in the presentation, not all utilization of the land by organizations is a negative thing. scenes article :: papers look into papers Bring Home Essay Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The world we live in today is continually changing, regardless of whether it be innovation or the land. As these progressions happen, society must adjust to them. Numerous things start to change therefore and society creatures to transform into something totally unique. One of the most neglected changes that happens is that of the earth and scene. The scene is one of the most significant pieces of our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and greatly affects how we live. It appears that these days, numerous people are exploiting the land and nothing valuing it for everything that it is worth. The facts demonstrate that not every person is going to take a gander at the earth and scene similarly, anyway that is no reason to disregard it. On the other hand, a totally different contention can begin from that, as various people will have various perspectives on what disregarding the land. Numerous positive things have originated from exploiting the land, and furthermore, there have been many negative things to come subsequently. Everything relies upon what you look like at it. One thing is without a doubt however, regardless of what the case is, the land and condition we live in has an immense impact in every one of our regular day to day existences. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Our scene is continually changing, since the Big Bang Theory to introduce day. There are a wide range of elements which can an enormous effect on the forming of the land. There are numerous cataclysmic events, for example, floods, tropical storms, tremors, typhoons, and even fierce blazes. They can change the substance of the scene and they can change the state of the scene. At that point there is additionally the human factor. Numerous tremendous organizations and organizations are continually exploiting, or as Denis Wood alludes to as in Ã¢â¬Å"The Spell of the Land,Ã¢â¬ the assaulting of the land. It is an exceptionally uncommon sight to being driving these days and not see some sort of building being assembled or a future sight of some kind of business. There is nothing that should be possible when taking a gander at the catastrophic event factor, yet concerning the human factor, there are steps that individuals can do to forestall the Ã¢â¬Å"rapingÃ¢â¬ of th e land. Once more, similar to I addressed in the presentation, not all utilization of the land by organizations is a negative thing.
Friday, August 21, 2020
How Emotion Regulation Skills Promote Stability BPD Living With BPD Print How Emotion Regulation Skills Promote Stability Control your emotions rather than letting them control you By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Learn about our editorial policy Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Updated on September 17, 2019 More in BPD Living With BPD Diagnosis Treatment Related Conditions Many people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) struggle with basic emotion regulation skills. In fact, Marsha Linehan, one of the foremost researchers in BPD and the developer of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for BPD, has suggested that emotion regulation deficits are at the core of the disorder.?? Knowing how to regulate your emotions is important for everyone, whether or not you have BPD. But what is emotion regulation, and how can you improve your emotion regulation skills? Understanding Emotion Regulation We all feel emotions, both negative or positive, on a daily basis. As children, most of us typically learn how to manage, express, and cope with these emotions in a healthy way. For some people though, including those with BPD, emotion regulation is much more difficult, sometimes due to painful childhood experiences, abuse, or trauma, and sometimes because of not having been shown or taught how. Though its considered an important area of study in the world of psychology, so far there is no one agreed-upon definition of the term emotion regulation. Many researchers define emotion regulation as the ability to enhance or reduce your emotions as needed.?? For example, if you feel upset in the middle of a meeting at work, you might try to distract yourself from whatever was upsetting you by thinking about something else. Other researchers use a much broader definition of emotion regulation, viewing it as a set of skills that help keep your emotional system healthy and functioning. Since emotions are not absolute and permanent, we can learn to adjust what emotion we have, how intense it is, when we have it, and how we react to it. The defining aspect of emotion regulation is that it occurs when a goal is activated.?? Goals are highly individual. Theyre what we picture in our headsâ"the way wed like things to turn out. Your goals can be activated in a conscious or subconscious way by your environment, which includes people, objects, images, words, and sounds. Examples of Emotion Regulation Here are some examples of activated goals that trigger the regulation of your emotions: Influencing a change in someone else: If youre a parent, your goal may be to help your child learn how to regulate his or her own emotions. When your child has a meltdown, you may feel angry or even amused, but instead of yelling or laughing, you regulate your emotions in order to talk to your child calmly about how she could react instead. This is referred to as extrinsic emotion regulation.Influencing a change in yourself: If one of your goals is to be more positive, you may regulate your negative emotions by focusing on positive ones. Regulating your own emotions is called intrinsic emotion regulation. Sometimes this kind of regulation is driven by what our culture views as good or bad feelings, or how we should behave in certain circumstances, such as at a funeral.Meeting long-term goals: You may also regulate your emotions in order to achieve another end goal. For instance, when your boss treats you poorly at work, you act as if it doesnt bother you because youre hoping for a jo b promotion.Changing the intensity, duration, or type of emotions: At times, we work to increase or decrease the intensity of our emotions. For instance, you may feel depressed or anxious, but no one at work knows about it. We also change how long our emotions last. An example of this is not wanting to think about the anxiety you feel over financial difficulties and instead keeping your mind busy with other activities. At other times, we may change the type of emotion we feel. If you fell down in front of everyone, you can choose to laugh or blow it off instead of being embarrassed.Unconscious regulation: This kind of emotion regulation happens without you even knowing or realizing it. An example of this would be quickly switching the channel when something you find upsetting comes on the television. Sometimes emotion regulation goals overlap. For instance, you may speak soothingly to an overwrought child (extrinsic) in order to help decrease your own anger and frustration (intrinsic). The Process Model of Emotion Regulation The prevailing generic theory of emotion regulation is called the process model.?? First of all, our emotions are typically generated by a situation, attention, appraisal, response sequence, like this: Situation: Emotion generation begins in a situation. It may be an external situation, such as a friend making a critical comment, or it may be a thought or emotion in your own head.Attention: This situation grabs your attention. For instance, your attention may be drawn to the way your friend has his arms crossed as if hes angry.Appraisal: You appraise the situation. In this example, you may be worried that this person no longer wants to be your friend.Response: Your initial response can be physical and/or emotional. Your face may turn red and you may feel hurt. You then respond to the person, which may change the situation and start a new sequence all over again. For example, you tell your friend that the comment hurt your feelings and ask why he said it. He may then apologize or say hes having a bad day. When it comes to emotion regulation, we can pick any part of the above sequence of emotion generation and influence our emotions accordingly. Situation: We can choose to avoid people or situations that we think well find hurtful, engage in situations we find positive, or we can change the situation were already in by changing our behavior.Attention: We can focus on something else in the situation, such as nonverbal cues the other person is giving or what might be really behind what shes saying.Appraisal: We can change the way were thinking about the situation. For instance, if the emotion generation sequence was started by you thinking Im so stupid, you can tell yourself thats not true and its just a feeling youre having at this moment. In the above example, after worrying that your friend no longer wants to be your friend, you can remind yourself that youre jumping to conclusions and one critical comment doesnt mean the end of your friendship.Response: We can change how we respond to the situation. Instead of getting angry and lashing out, you can do some breathing exercises. Instead of avoiding an uncomfortable situation , you can take a trusted friend along with you. Instead of overreacting to what someone says, you can ask him or her more about it so you understand each other. Healthy Emotion Regulation Healthy emotion regulation includes components such as: The ability to recognize that youre having an emotional response and to understand what that response is.Accepting your emotional responses rather than rejecting them or reacting to them with fear. This can be difficult even for people who dont have BPD, as emotions such as anger or sadness are often discouraged by society.The ability to access strategies that allow you to reduce the intensity of the emotion youre feeling when you need to. This means if someone has enraged you, you dont give in to the desire to physically lash out at them or hurl a long line of epithets their way. In fact, when youre upset, you should be able to engage in goal-directed behavior if youre well-versed in emotion regulation.The ability to control impulsive behaviors when youre upset. If you feel like trashing your home because you received upsetting news, you can curb the inclination to throw everything on the floor or punch a hole in the wall. Because people with BPD can struggle with some or all of the skills on this list, this broader definition of emotion regulation mentioned above is probably the most helpful in describing the regulation deficits that are present in BPD. Fortunately, it is possible to develop some of the emotion regulation skills that you lack. How to Improve Your Emotion Regulation Skills If you need to work on your emotion regulation skills, this training is best done with the help of a BPD therapist since its an important component of dialectical behavior therapy for BPD.?? However, you can try a few exercises on your own outside of therapy such as: Reducing emotional vulnerability: Making sure you take good care of yourself by getting plenty of sleep, eating a healthy diet, staying active, and making time to do activities you enjoy can all go a long way in helping you avoid some of the emotional ups and downs associated with BPD.Mindfulness skills: Mindfulness is the practice of being present in the moment and its one of the core skills in DBT. Mindful people learn to be aware of the breaths they take, the tension in their muscles, and even their pulse rates. They chew their food slowly and intentionally, and listen to their bodies for cues that they are full. They can objectively observe themselves in difficult moments, confident that even these times will pass. Being mindful can help you learn how to use healthy coping skills to deal with your emotions.Emotional acceptance: In and of themselves, emotions are not good or bad, though they may be scary, especially when theyre intense. Learning how to accept your emotions takes practice, but the more you do it, the more natural it becomes. Mindfulness skills can help with this too.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1574 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/05/31 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Death Of A Salesman Essay Did you like this example? For over forty years audiences and readers have been drawn into the lives of the Loman family and have often found in that family their own parents and themselves. Arthur Millers classic American play, Death of a Salesman, exposes the relationship between gender relationships and dysfunctional family behaviors. The play was well written with plenty of creative plot ideas; however, it completely degrades women. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Women in Death Of A Salesman Novel" essay for you Create order Throughout Arthur Millers Death of a salesman, we see the women being objectified through their treatment at the hands of men. The author portrays this in Lindas constant emotional abuse to show that she is unimportant to Willy, Happy and his actions and statements are used to show that women are easily manipulated, Willy and Ben thinking of their father as an adventurous man while treating their mother as less significant to show mens superiority. All through the play we see the way that Willy, Biff, and Happy treat women, and during that time period it was normal for men to be treating women that way. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century women were looked down upon, they were restricted from doing anything that made them leave the house. Women were seen as the housekeepers, having to cook, clean, have and take care of children, whereas the men would be outside working, and living a life where they could do anything they pleased. Men did not see women as persons, but rather as creatures for their amusement. Females were treated as fragile and delicate beings and were not nearly as important as men and had no power or control. (Breanna Romans, 2016). Every single woman in the play was treated with unimportance because, as mentioned above, this was the way men in the 1940s viewed women. The time period that Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman was an era where women were mistreated, and treated as objects. Linda is the female who is being objectified the most by her husband Willy. We see in the play, day after day, Willy constantly interrupted Linda, cut her off, ignored her, and treated her with disrespect. Ã¢â¬Å"Linda: Maybe things are beginning toÃ¢â¬ ¦ Willy: (wildly enthused, to Linda) Stop interrupting! Ã¢â¬ (Act 1, page 46) The most objectifying action Willy displayed was his disloyalty towards Linda, and yet, she still cherished and respected him even during his lowest moments. Ã¢â¬Å"Linda: No, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t just come to see me, because I love him. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s the dearest man in the world to me, and I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have anyone making him feel unwanted and low and blue.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1, page 55) In the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, women standing up for themselves to their husbands was unheard of. Linda took so much emotional abuse from her husband that it was no longer considered wrong, but normal. Willy never saw the intelligent side of Linda. Even though she was always so loving, he is always the one who takes control over their sons Biff and Happy, she has no control in shaping who they become, as he wants the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ future to be the way he had planned it to be. Willy treated his wife as the typical housewife that he would advertise. In addition to that, Happy Loman portrayed many aspects of the objectification of women through his actions and statements regarding women themselves. Happy doesnt care about morals when it comes to women. He only likes the idea of being with them. He lies to women to get their attention, most likely for the intention of sleeping with them. There were situations in the play that suggest this attitude as he would hit on women that already have partners. The play insists that Happy goes for girls just for their looks to build his self esteem. He says this by complimenting them, for example, when he states Ã¢â¬Å"Would you object to a compliment from a stranger? You ought to be on a magazine coverÃ¢â¬ (Act 2 Page 101). Happy tells women things they would like to hear. For example, it is stated when Happy says Ã¢â¬Å"Biff is quarterback with the New York GiantsÃ¢â¬ (Act Two Page 102). This demonstrates that the play is showing how easily fooled women can be. From the way the play expressed the women, it was as though they were prostitutes. This also makes it seem like women are easily seduced and easy to be controlled by men. Just like with the 3 executives fiancÃ ©s, the play makes it seem like women are easily manipulated by men and drop their morals because they are blinded by their wants. The girls whom Happy associate with get drawn to the way Happy talks to them and his appearance. Happy takes advantage of their naive look on the world. He shows his sexual objectification of women when he states Ã¢â¬Å"Look at that mouth. Oh. God. And the binoculars.Ã¢â¬ (Act 2 Page 100). Even Biff has a tainted view on women from seeing his dadÃ¢â¬â¢s mistress and has no respect for them, with the exception of his mom. Another female who was objectified was WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. The Loman family history can be pieced together through WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashback conversation with Ben(partly with his conversation with Charley) and his present conversation with Howard. Apparently, Father Loman was a travelling maker and seller of flutes who went off to seek adventure in Alaska and deserted Mother, leaving her with two boys to raise alone. Then Ben ran off when he was seventeen and Willy was not quite four years old. Thus Willy and Mother were left alone together. The desertion by his father left Willy feeling Ã¢â¬Å"kind of temporaryÃ¢â¬ (Act1, page 51) about himself and provoked Ben to imitate and surpass what his father had done. Both sons mythologize the father: to Willy he was Ã¢â¬Å"an adventurous manÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"quite a little streak of self-relianceÃ¢â¬ (Act 2, page 81); to Ben he was Ã¢â¬Å"a very great and a very wild-hearted manÃ¢â¬ who with Ã¢â¬Å"one gadgetÃ¢â¬ ( the flute) supposedly Ã¢â¬Å"made more in a week than a man like Willy could make in a lifetimeÃ¢â¬ (Act 1, Page 49). Both trivialize the role of their mother. Ben calls her a Ã¢â¬Å"Fine specimen of a ladyÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"old girlÃ¢â¬ (Act 1 page 46) and assumes she would be living with lesser son Willy. But she is the woman who bore and raised Ben, whom he deserted and made no attempt to contact, not even knowing that she had Ã¢â¬Å"died a long time agoÃ¢â¬ (Act 1, Page 46). WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s only other stated information about Mother Loman is his memory of being Ã¢â¬Å"in MammaÃ¢â¬â¢s lap listening to some kind of high music coming from a man with a big beardÃ¢â¬ (Act 1, page 48). The mother thus provided the position of comfort from which to attend to the father (Kay Stanton, 1989). Mother is never mentioned again which gives the impression that she is not of importance in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Ã¢â¬ËThe womanÃ¢â¬â¢ was WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s mistress and was mentioned a lot in the play, but the fact that she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even have a name is the most degrading thing the writer has done to her character. She only exists to satisfy WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual desires and is treated as an object rather than a person. She was a tool to tend to WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s bruised ego and as a reward she was showered with gifts.(Prezi, 2015). She is easily tossed aside like an old toy when Biff comes to see his father. She is blindsided, and she is left humiliated when Willy denies her, sending her out of the room in her nightgown.Ã¢â¬ Willy(pushing her offstage): Get outa here! Go back, go back!Ã¢â¬ (Act 2, page 87) Even though she was treated better than Linda, she was still discarded when she was no longer of use to him. She was nothing more than his side lady and he had no intentions of making her anything more. She was used for her body and to fill the gaps in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The dialogue suggested that she did not know of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s children, and of his marriage until Biff arrived at the hotel which proves that she was not a home wrecker and had good intentions with Willy. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s character relates to the author Arthur Miller, he was married but at the same time was having affair with Marilyn Monroe which suggests that the author himself did not respect women either. In conclusion, Women in Death of a Salesman are used to excite and appease to men even if the men are abusive or disrespectful. We have seen this in the way Willy treats Linda and how he constantly cuts her off and emotionally abuse her, in addition to Ã¢â¬Ëthe womanÃ¢â¬â¢ and how she was tossed away when she was no longer of use to Willy. Happy also shows very huge disrespect to women when his only intention with them is sexually, along with his brother Biff. Ben and Willy also trivialized their mother and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know that she passed away. Every single woman in this play was objectified one way or another by the hands of men, and every single man in the play has disrespected a woman with no exceptions. Till this day we still face this problem. Men today still continue to see women as objects of pleasure probably even more so than past times. Although we have advanced in the way people treat, and see women, they are still fighting for equal rights, and to stop being t reated as objects.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The purpose of this paper is to compare the Canadian and the United States health care system. the first part of the paper will focus on describing each country health care system. The second part will focus on analyzing, evaluating and comparing these two countries system efficiency and benefits. The last part, is an overview of the recent policies changes and its effect (positive and negative) on each country citizens and proposed future reforms for better coverage in these countries. Canada health system Canada provides a national universal care that covers everyone in the country. Medicare founding are received through public spending. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a single payer system single payer system. Many feels that it is inaccurate to characterize theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Since 1971 the health care system has deviated from each other. While Canada has had publicly funded national health insurance, the United States has relied largely on private financing and delivery (Goran Ridic). The current health Care act (Canada health act) was introduced in 1984 and it covers almost all the cost of citizens medical cost. In the course of this period, spending in the United States has grown much more rapidly despite large groups that either not covered or minimally insured. Canada health care system is relatively low compare the United States. So why are do they have better coverage (lower infant mortality rates or higher life expectancy)? Under the Act, each provincial health plan is administered at the provincial level and provides comprehensive first dollar coverage of all medically necessary services. With minor exceptions, health coverage is available to most if not all residents with no out of pocket charges. Most physicians are paid on a fee for services and enjoy a great deal of practice autonomy. Private health insurance for covered services are illegal. Most Canadians have supplemental private insurance for services that are not covered, such as prescription drugs and dental services. Consequently, physicians are forced to participate and each health plan effectively serves all residents in the province (Henderson 487). Physician fees are determined by a negotiations between the ministry and provincial medical associationsShow MoreRelatedThe Canadian Health Care System1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Canadian health care system is often touted as a better health care system compared to the way the United States administers health care since the two neighboring nations appear to be economically and socially similar. The U. S. and Canada have extensive health care systems for it citizens but each country has different methods to financing health care. Health care in Canada is funded at both the provincial and federal levels while the U.S. health care system funded by a combination of publicRead MoreU.s. 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M ajority of AmericansRead MoreHealth Care Of The United States Essay1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Health Care in the United States Matthew Glennon Ivy Tech Community College Abstract The aim of this paper was to gather and find information over universal health care. Research will demonstrate the varying ideas on universal health care. The goal of the paper for the reader is to inform them well enough on the topic to be able to pick a side and make a solid argument. The reader will be informed on different ideas that surround universal health care. The combinedRead MoreStandards of Evaluation1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Health Care Standards Between the US and Canada The Canadian health care system is often compared to the US system. In 2007 a systematic review concluded that outcomes may be superior in Canada versus the United States. 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When one doctor and one patient, in 2005, challenged the QuÃ ©bec Health Insurance Act and the Hospital Insurance Act to allow private health care in QuÃ ©becRead MoreThe Formation Of Canada s Health Care System1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Two-Tiered or not Two-Tiered- Is That Even the Question? Looking at the Future of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Care Kirstin Cain Sociology 101 Northwest Community College Two-Tiered or not Two-Tiered- Is That Even the Question? Looking at the Future of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Care One of the founding fathers of structural functionalism, Emile Durkheim, believed that society could be viewed as an entity whose parts, or institutions, needed to work well together as a whole and that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs determined how
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Political Transitions in Myanmar and Changes in Burmese WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Status Since its independence in 1948 until 2008, Myanmar was an island unto itself. Although being the largest mainland country in Southeast Asia, it is also one of the least known countries in the region. Decades of military dictatorship and a policy of isolationism made Myanmar one of the least developed countries in the world with a population of 60 million people. Various international agencies, such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), classify Myanmar as a Ã¢â¬Å"low-income country under stressÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"least developed country (LDC)Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âthis indicates that the country not only suffers from extreme poverty, but it also exhibits the lowestÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although the Burmese government and various NGOs have made concerted efforts to promote womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights since 2008, there is still much room for improvement in the rural and remote border areas. In this paper, I will examine how the role and status of Burmese wo men have changed through MyanmarÃ¢â¬â¢s multiple political transitions, ranging from colonialism, through military junta, to democracy. Special attention will be paid to examining gender inequality in education and political participation. In addition, I argue that tensions between the various racial and ethnic groups in Myanmar serve as deterrents to the efforts made to improve womenÃ¢â¬â¢s status. Contrary to the common perception that women in Southeast Asia traditionally enjoyed a high status in society, many scholars generally agree that such assumptions about the purported status of women are oversimplified by Ã¢â¬Å"postcolonial scholars in order to perpetuate the discourse of gender equality.Ã¢â¬ (Ikeya 2006:51). According to Chie Ikeya, the Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ high status of women in Myanmar has been used since its independence from Great Britain to assert and implicit the message of gender equality (2006:53). This explains why not only gender inequality persists in Southeast Asia, but why the very discourse of gender equality also does not get enough attention in this region. Ikeya argues that the Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ high status of women in Southeast Asia
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
In fact, Kairos is an opportunity for men to have agency in a world usually dictated by fate. In this way, Kairos restores freedom to human lives that would otherwise be predetermined. Finally, it is interesting to notice that there does not exist a modern English translation for Kairos, which seems to suggest that it is a concept that does not have a place in modern society and thus in our modern understanding of time. Chronos and Kairos oppose each other in many ways.. Whereas Chronos refers to sequential time, measurable and regular, Kairos denotes qualitative time, or a favorable moment. Moreover, unlike Chronos, Kairos is unpredictable and can only be Ã¢â¬ËrevealedÃ¢â¬â¢ thanks to the correct interpretation of external signs, hence the impression that it is situated outside of Chronos. The Ã¢â¬Å"opportune momentsÃ¢â¬ Kairos provides are neither measurable nor predictable, and cannot be located on a clock or on any similar device. Thus, to a certain extent, Kairos seems to be a Ã¢â¬Å"timelessÃ¢â¬ time. The Hippocratic Corpus, a group of texts said to be written by Hippocrates, exemplifies the importance of Kairos to the ancient Greeks in everyday life. The author writes that the success of the medicine a doctor administers to a patient depends greatly on the time or moment that the medicine is given. While the success of the remedy used is also dependent on different characteristics of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body, it is the moment that the remedy is used that is the most important. Indeed, Kairos cannot be placed in a larger temporal framework because it does not relate to the notions of past and future. For this reason, Kairos can only exist in the present. This is why a physician does not try to redict how a disease will evolve, but instead attempts to predict in which Kairos, or Ã¢â¬Å"critical phaseÃ¢â¬ he is in at the moment of his medical examination. For example, in the case of Ã¢â¬Å"an overpowering heaviness of the headÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"water, or at most [Ã¢â¬ ¦] a pale-yellow wineÃ¢â¬ should be administered. While this quote may seem to describe the way doctors apply medicine today, it is in fact a description of a ver y different system. Rather than seeking a connection between the symptom and the medicine, ancient doctors felt there was a connection between the symptom and the moment of Kairos it exists in. Different symptoms indicated different moments of Kairos which then dictated how the patient ought to be treated. Furthermore, these moments of interpretation are deeply anchored in the present, as it is the only Ã¢â¬Å"timeÃ¢â¬ (as opposed to past and future) in which action can be taken. This is to say that Kairos is the moment in which a man can escape his fate, which otherwise rules his life. Fate is always associated with Chronos time, which can be predicted and unavoidably evolves from past to future according to a predetermined development. In contrast, Kairos time allows for spontaneous action based on temporal opportunities. Since in Chronos time, the present is already determined by the past, there is never a true moment of freedom. SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Oedipus at Colonus presents an illustration of this predestination: Ã¢â¬Å"Thy tale of cruel suffering For which no cure was found, The fate that held thee bound. Ã¢â¬ Here the Chorus addresses Oedipus, clearly expressing the idea that his life, just as that of anybody else, is constrained by fate, which he cannot escape. Chronos is the father of all the Olympian Gods, represented as a wise old man, and known as Ã¢â¬Å"Father Time. Ã¢â¬ In contrast to this image of Chronos, Kairos is represented dancing, holding the scales of fate in his left hand; with his right hand, he is tipping the scale in one direction or the other. This clearly shows his ability to liberate moments from fate and his detachment from Chronos. Because of this, the moment of the action is often emphasized more than the action itself. This is evident in the Hippocratic Medical Corpus: Ã¢â¬Å"This is the time for administrating gruel that must be most carefully observedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Consider this time of great importance in all diseasesÃ¢â¬ From this quote, it is clear that the most important factor in the administration of medicine is not the disease the patient has, but the moment the remedy will be given. This moment must occur at the right time, during the right phase of the illness, in order for the remedy to be successful. The same can be said about PindarÃ¢â¬â¢s Pythian 4, an ode to the victor of the Pythian games. In Pythian 4, Pindar spends more time describing the process that led the heroes to go on an expedition in search for the golden fleece at the moment they did than he does describing their exploits, which are only summarized. This example is particularly interesting in that through those feats, Jason, the hero of the myth, and his companions will achieve kleos, and will thus transcend Chronos time. However, it is the fact that the expedition left at the right moment that seems important to Pindar, or at least more important than the exploits. In an example such as this one, Kairos does seem to be treated as the agent of the action, or at any rate, as responsible for its success. This gives Kairos an extremely important role, in rehabilitating manÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom. Indeed, without the existence of Kairos, human beings would be trapped in their fate without any power over their destiny. Kairos is an opportunity and a Ã¢â¬Å"critical momentÃ¢â¬ , but it is also the Ã¢â¬Å"due measureÃ¢â¬ that allow humans to influence on the course of their own existences. However, Kairos only allows men to take action; it does not take action for them. This is evident in the medical corpus: Ã¢â¬Å"[Physicians] generally make the change from fasting to gruel exactly at those times at which often it is profitable to exchange gruel for what is virtually fasting. Ã¢â¬ One can imagine that relying on such a method could have led to serious mistakes. The nature of Kairos is such that these mistake could easily have disastrous consequences, for which the physician, and not Kairos, would be responsible. Indeed, Kairos alone is not sufficient for a patient to heal, or for an action to be carried out with success. In order for an action to succeed the individual must act in the right moment but must also act correctly. In the medical corpus example, giving gruel could probably have been beneficial, but was not because it was given to the patient at the wrong phase of time. This also is why the medical corpus says medications listed can only be efficient in Ã¢â¬Å"the proper time of their useÃ¢â¬ . In this way, Kairos is a necessary condition, but is in no way sufficient on its own. The positive outcome of an action therefore does not only depend on Kairos, but on the correct interpretation of Kairos. Thus, a good physician is not one who knows all the different names of every disease, a good physician is one who above all else can read a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body in order to recognize the phase of time the disease is in, and thus determine what should be done. This is why, according to a passage of the Hippocratic Corpus, every physician should learn Ã¢â¬Å"the changes of the seasons and the risings and settings of the phenomenaÃ¢â¬ in order to Ã¢â¬Å"learn the times beforehandÃ¢â¬ , which will allow him to Ã¢â¬Å"succeed best in securing health, and will achieve the greatest triumphs in the practice of his artÃ¢â¬ Our modern concept of time leaves no place for Kairos. The word cannot be translated into modern English, and even the concept requires a fair amount of explanation, since it falls so outside of the realm of our understanding of both time and fate. The closest word to Kairos in the English language would most likely be the word, Ã¢â¬Å"opportunityÃ¢â¬ While Ã¢â¬Å"opportunityÃ¢â¬ conveys the way moments in Kairos function with humans agency, it does not fully convey the temporal dimension of Kairos. In modern day society, opportunities are not necessarily always dependent on small windows of time and are often not spontaneous. In this sense, it appears that we can only talk of an opportunity, but not of the moment in which that opportunity takes place. This is to say that the same way Kairos seems detached from Chronos, our opportunity is detached from time altogether. However, even today, moments of Kairos, though not intentionally, are often taken into consideration when a decision is being made about an action. For example, politicians often Ã¢â¬Å"read the signsÃ¢â¬ of the political environment or social atmosphere before making a speech on a particular topic.